SK-AT 2007-2013 - creating the future
SK-AT 2007-2013 - creating the future

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Glossary

Activity Field 
Different Activity Fields > http://www.sk-at.eu/sk-at/en/2-4_priorities.php

Audit    
An inspection of the systems and financial records of a project to confirm the accuracy, reliability and eligibility of funding claims.
Source: Good Practice INTERREG III FLC systems, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2006

Audit Authority (AA)
A body operationally independent of the Managing Authority and the Certifying Authority designated by the Member State for each operational programme and responsible for verifying the sound operation of the management and control system.
Source: 2007-13 – Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999 – Article 59

Audit Trail
Document retracing all stages of a programme within the framework of a CIP INTERREG and, notably, reciprocal responsibility of all actors. Quality controls are rightly designed to test regularly good functioning of the system put in place. To be sufficient, an audit trail must allow certified summary accounts, notified to the European Commission, to be gathered together with statements of expenses and documentary proof thereof and to control the attribution and transfer of the Community and national funds available.
Source: Subsidy contract Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005

Beneficiary   
An operator, body or firm, whether public or private, responsible for initiating and/or implementing operations. In the context of aid schemes under Article 87 of the Treaty, beneficiaries are public or private firms carrying out an individual action and receiving public aid.
Source: 2007-13 – Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999 – Article 2

Budget    
All project's revenue and expenditure is entered in budget

Call for Proposals    
The official communication to potential project applicants to present proposals and the way to do it, regardless the system and procedure of this communication.
Source: Good Practice INTERREG III Project Evaluation and Selection Manual, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2006

Central Monitoring System (CMS)
The whole Project Life Cycle of the European territorial cooperation programmes has to be adapted to the new requirements. Consequently a new set of forms and checklists – ranging from the application forms to checklists for assessment and certifications and common standards for reporting – are needed. The new monitoring system that will be used for all the European territorial cooperation programmes should reflect the information acquired in these documents accordingly. The Monitoring System (client part) consists of two parts:
a) A document management system (DMS): the project mailbox serving as a document archive and information platform with mailbox for every overall project
b) Input module of the Central Monitoring System (CMS)
    
Certification of Expenditure    
Carried out by the Paying Authority, the Certification of Expenditure is based on expenses effectively paid and justified by final beneficiaries.
Source: Subsidy contract Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005  
 

Certifying Authority (CA)   
A body or local, regional or national authority designated by the Member State to certify declarations of expenditure and applications for payment before they are sent to the Commission.
Source: 2007-13 – Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999 – Article 59

Cohesion Fund (CF)    
Fund created in 1993 to complement the structural aid of the European Union in the four least prosperous Member States (Greece, Spain, Ireland and Portugal) by financing projects concerned with environmental protection and European transport networks. It applies to the new Member States after accession in 2004.

Commitment    
A commitment is a formal decision taken by the Commission to set aside a certain amount of money for a particular purpose. No expenditure can be incurred in excess of the authorised commitment.

Controller     
Certified private controller that carries out the First Level Controls on behalf of the project partner or the public authority in charge of the controls. Or, Authorised and competent person within the organisation that carries out the First Level Controls either within the partner organisation or the public authority in charge of the controls.
Source: Good Practice INTERREG III FLC systems, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2006

Cross Border
Cross-border co-operation between adjacent regions aims to increase

Cooperation (CBC)
mutual contacts and to develop cross-border social and economic areas through common development strategies and projects.

Eligibility of Expenditure    
Community rules to be respected to guarantee equitable implementation of European structural funds. The eligibility of expenses to the Community rules allows them to be taken into account on behalf of the structural funds concerned. The inspection on the eligibility of expenses is essentially made at the time of the control on service rendered.
Source: Subsidy contract Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005

Eligible Costs
Expenditure by partners involved with the implementation of a project that can be reimbursed from funding allocated under the subsidy contract. Project expenditure that meets the criteria set out in the Regulations and the Implementation Rules. It is the expenditure on which grant is paid.
Source: Good Practice INTERREG III Partnership Agreement Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005, INTERREG IIIA Programme Wales – Ireland, CIP pp.239 ff.

Equal Opportunities
The two key elements of the general principle of equal opportunities laid down in the Community Treaties are the ban on discrimination on grounds of nationality (Article 12 of the EC Treaty, formerly Article 6) and equal pay for men and women(Article 141 of the EC Treaty, formerly Article 119). EQUAL opportunities are intended to apply to all Community policies, particularly economic, social, cultural and family life, especially through the ‘gender mainstreaming’ approach. Gender mainstreaming should ensure that measures and operations financed by the Structural Funds take into account their effects on the respective situations of women and men.
The Treaty of Amsterdam added a new Article 13 to the Treaty, reinforcing the principle of non-discrimination, which is closely linked to equal opportunities. Under this new Article, the Council has the power to take appropriate action to combat discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

European Commission (EC)    
The European Commission is a politically independent collegial institution which embodies and defends the general interests of the European Union. Its virtually exclusive right of initiative in the field of legislation makes it the driving force of European integration. It prepares and then implements the legislative instruments adopted by the Council and the European Parliament in connection with Community policies.
The Commission also has powers of implementation, management and control. It is responsible for planning and implementing common policies, executing the budget and managing Community programmes. As "guardian of the Treaties", it also ensures that European law is applied.
The Commission is appointed for a five-year term by the Council acting by qualified majority in agreement with the Member States. It is subject to a vote of appointment by the European Parliament, to which it is answerable. The Commissioners are assisted by an administration made up of Directorates-General and specialised departments whose staff are divided mainly between Brussels and Luxembourg.
Since its inception the Commission has always been made up of two nationals from each of the Member States with larger populations and one national from each of the others. However, the Treaty of Nice limited the number of Members of the Commission to one per Member State. The Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, provides for a Commission in which only two thirds of the Member States would be represented after 2014. The Members will then be selected in accordance with a rotation system based on the principle of equality.
Source: http://europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/index_en.htm

European Community    
The European Community (EC) is a founding element of the European integration process.
It was established (as the European Economic Community) by the Treaty of Rome in 1957, with the principal objective of creating a common market without internal borders.
The establishment of the European Union (EU) in 1992 did not cause the European Economic Community to disappear. It remains part of the EU under the designation "European Community".
Article 2 of the Treaty establishing the EC defines its task as promoting throughout the Community:
a harmonious, balanced and sustainable development of economic activities;
a high level of employment and of social protection, and equality between men and women;
sustainable, non-inflationary growth;
a high degree of competitiveness and convergence of economic performance;
a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment, the raising of the standard of living and quality of life, economic and social cohesion, and solidarity among the Member States.
To achieve these goals, the EC has devised a set of sectoral policies, focusing on the fields of transport, competition, fisheries and agriculture, asylum and immigration, energy and the environment.
These policies are implemented under the decision-making procedure laid down by the Treaty establishing the EC, with particular emphasis on codecision. The decision-making mechanism governing these policies is based on a specific model known as the "Community method".
Source: http://europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/index_en.htm

European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)    
The ERDF is intended to help reduce imbalances between regions of the Community. The Fund was set up in 1975 and grants financial assistance for development projects in the poorer regions. In terms of financial resources, the ERDF is by far the largest of the EU's Structural Funds.
Source: DG Regional Policy – INFOREGIO Website – glossary

European Social Fund (ESF)    
Established in 1960, the ESF is the main instrument of Community social policy. It provides financial assistance for vocational training, retraining and job-creation schemes. Around 75% of the funding approved goes towards combating youth unemployment. With the increase in budget resources changes were made in the Social Fund and the focus moved to the new goals of improving the functioning of the labour markets and helping to reintegrate unemployed people into working life. Further action will tackle equal opportunities, helping workers adapt to industrial change and changes in production systems.

European Territorial Cooperation Objective (ETC)    
The European Territorial Co-operation objective will strengthen cross-border co-operation through joint local and regional initiatives, trans-national co-operation aiming at integrated territorial development, and interregional co-operation and exchange of experience. This objective is based on the experience drawn from the former Community initiative INTERREG.
Source: http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/policy/object/index_en.htm

European Union (EU)    
The European Union (EU) was established by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht, 1992).
The project of creating a Union has a long history, and was first mooted at the European summit of 1972.
The Union is both a political project and a form of legal organisation.
It is a political project in that the Union's task is "to organise, in a manner demonstrating consistency and solidarity, relations between the Member States and between their peoples" (Article 1 of the Treaty on European Union).
To achieve this, the Union is set a number of objectives:
To promote economic and social progress, sustainable development, an area without internal frontiers and economic and monetary union. These objectives match the aims pursued by the EU's sectoral policies.
To assert its identity on the international scene. This aim is linked with implementation of the common foreign and security policy.
To strengthen the protection of rights through the introduction of a citizenship of the Union. Union citizenship, which is created by the Treaty of Maastricht, is a special relationship between the EU and the nationals of the Member States.
To create an area of freedom, security and justice. As its name suggests, this area is intended to promote greater freedom, security and justice for the citizen.
To build on the acquis communautaire -- the corpus of rules established by and in the context of the Union.
The Union is founded on values: respect for human dignity, liberty, democracy, equality, the rule of law and human rights. It has its own symbols: a flag (twelve stars on a blue background), an anthem (Ludwig van Beethoven's "Ode to Joy"), a motto ("United in diversity"), a currency (the euro) and a Europe day (9 May).
The Union is a form of legal organisation consisting of three pillars:
the first corresponding to the European Community;
the second comprising the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP);
the third consisting of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.
It has a single institutional framework for the three pillars (essentially consisting of the European Council, the European Parliament, the Council of the Union and the European Commission). This ensures coherence and consistency in the Union's action across the pillars.
The Treaties do not officially confer legal personality on the Union but there is a consensus among the political players that this should be done. This option is endorsed by the draft Constitution, which clearly provides that the Union shall have such personality.
Source: http://europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/index_en.htm

Evaluation    
A periodic assessment of the efficiency, effectiveness, impact, sustainability and relevance of a project/programme in the context of stated objectives. It is usually undertaken as an independent examination with a view to drawing lessons that may guide future decision making. Normally takes the form of an ex-ante, a mid-term and an ex-post evaluation. (Not to be confused with the evaluation/assessment of proposals submitted under a grant scheme call for proposals procedure.)

Financial Report     
Part of the progress report. Lead Partners of operations have to submit a progress report to the respective Joint Technical Secretariat at the end of each reporting period. It contains a retrospective accounting of the total costs incurred during the reporting period.
Source: DG Regional Policy – INFOREGIO Website

First Level Control (FLC)    
Basic control carried out by the Managing Authority on the eligibility and regularity of operations funded by the structural funds concerned. The control on service rendered covers all expenses: it is the foundation of the entire inspection system and is the main guarantee of the feasibility of expenses for the European Commission. It seeks to verify the reality and physical conformity of the operation with what was predicted, the reality and eligibility of expenses incurred and the respect of the prior financial plan.
Source: Subsidy contract Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005

Impact    
The effect of the project/programme on its wider environment, and its contribution to the wider sector objectives summarised in the project’s/programme’s overall objective, and on the achievement of the overarching policy objectives of the EC.

Indicator    
An indicator can be defined as the measurement of an objective to be met, a resource mobilised, an effect obtained, a gauge of quality or a context variable. An indicator should be made up by a definition, a value and a measurement unit.
Source: The New Programming Period, 2007-2013: Methodological Working Papers – Draft Working Paper “Indicators for monitoring and evaluation: a practical guide”, 23 January 2006, p.5.

Intermediate Body (IB)    
Any body or public or private service which acts under the responsibility of a Managing or Certifying Authority or which carries out duties on behalf of such an authority vis-à-vis beneficiaries implementing operations.
Source: 2007-13 – Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999 – Article 2

Joint Technical Secretariat (JTS)    
The role of the Joint Technical Secretariat takes place upstream of the programme. It runs the territory of the programme and instructs on subsidy requests by final beneficiaries before submission of the dossier to the programming authorities.
Source: Subsidy contract Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005

Lead Partner Principle (LPP)    
This is an important feature of objective 3 programmes. The Lead Partner takes the overall responsibility for the submission of the application form and of the implementation of the entire project in case of project approval. The Lead Partner is therefore responsible for the sound management of the project, ensures the delivery of outputs and organises the required audits and control activities. In case the Lead Partner originates from an EU Member State, it shall also be responsible for the financial management of the ERDF funds. If it originates from a non-EU Member State, the responsibility for ERDF funds is delegated to a partner from an EU Member State (ERDF LP), since only a project partner coming from a Member State is entitled to deal with ERDF-funding. The Lead Partner establishes lawful connections between project partners in order to define their mutual cooperation legally. It thereby also protects itself against contractual partners.
Source: Good Practice INTERREG III Application Pack Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2006

Lead Partner/Lead Beneficiary    
The Lead Partner has fully financial responsibility for the entire operation including all partners and is responsible for the proper reporting of progress to the respective Joint Technical Secretariat as also stipulated in the subsidy contract.
Source: Communication from the Commission to the Member States of 7 May 2001 C(2001) 1188 final
    
Managing Authority (MA)    
An authority, or public or private national, regional or local body designated by the Member State, or the Member State itself when it carries out that task, to manage an operational programme.
Source: 2007-13 – Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999 – Article 59

Monitoring    
The systematic and continuous collecting, analysis and using of information for the purpose of management and decision-making (here referring to ongoing projects or programmes).

National Strategic Reference Framework    
Basis for programming EU Structural Funds under the new financial perspective (2007-2013).
The programming approach will be more strategic, centred on the ‘Community strategic guidelines on cohesion’, theCommission ’s priorities and the new “National Strategic Reference Frameworks”. These reference documents will replace the present Community Support Frameworks (CSFs), Single Programming Documents (SPDs) and programming complements. Providing a succinct description of the Member State ’s strategy and the principal operations that stem from it, they will each represent a political charter for the drawing up of operational programmes. Member States will have exclusive responsibility in managing interventions.

Non-governmental Organisations (NGO)    
The World Bank defines NGOs as “private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development” (Operational Directive 14.70). In wider usage, the term NGO can be applied to any non-profit organization which is independent from government. NGOs are typically value-based organizations which depend, in whole or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary service. Although the NGO sector has become increasingly professionalized over the last two decades, principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics.

Objectives    
Generally, the goal to be achieved by a project or programme. Normally, a number of results will lead to achieving the project objective; and the results are reached by successfully carrying out specified activities. Often referred to as “Project Purpose” in the logframe matrix.
Also used in Structural Funds terminology to define eligible regions.

Operational Programme    
Document submitted by the Member State and adopted by the Commission as part of the strategic reference framework setting out a development strategy using a coherent set of priorities, to achieve which aid from a Fund, or, in the case of the “Convergence” Objective, the Cohesion Fund and the ERDF, will be sought.
Source: 2007-13 – Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999 – Article 2

Output Indicators    
Output indicators relate to activity. They are measured in physical or monetary units (e.g. length of railroad constructed, number of firms financially supported, etc.).
Source: The New Programming Period, 2007-2013: Methodological Working Papers – Draft Working Paper “Indicators for monitoring and evaluation: a practical guide”, 23 January 2006, p.6.

Partnership    
The principle of partnership marks out the close cooperation between the European Commission, the Member State concerned and the authorities participating according to the terms of Community regulation and following their designation by the Member State, in preparation and carrying out of programmes.
Source: Subsidy contract Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005

Priority    
One of the priorities of the strategy in an operational programme comprising a group of operations which are related and have specific measurable goals.
Source: 2007-13 – Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999 – Article 2

Progress Report    
Comprised of the Activity Report and the Financial Report. It documents the progress of the operation and serves as payment request. Lead Partners of operations have to submit a progress report at the end of each reporting period to the Joint Technical Secretariat.
Source: DG Regional Policy – INFOREGIO Website

Project Partners    
Other organisations that, in addition to the Lead Partner, sign a Partnership Agreement and are involved with the implementation of a project.
Source: Good Practice INTERREG III Partnership Agreement Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005

Public Procurement    
Public procurement contracts cover supplies, services and works purchased by the public sector.
Those over a certain value are subject to Community rules and procedures.
This legislation ensures fair treatment for businesses and openness in the handling of invitations to tender. It is to be seen in the context of greater competition and the freedom to provide services within the European common market.
Certain contracts remain a matter purely for the Member States, irrespective of their value, when they affect specific state interests. This particularly applies to defence contracts.
In 2004, the Council and the European Parliament enacted a new package of legislation which simplifies and modernises the procedures for awarding public-sector contracts. This package consists of two directives, one covering public works, supply and services contracts and the other public contracts in the water, energy, transport and postal sectors.
Two more directives govern the appeals procedures concerning the award of public works and supply contracts and the procedures for award of contracts by operators in the water, energy, transport and telecommunications sectors.
The Community legislation requires contracts over certain thresholds to be advertised in the Official Journal. The public procurement information system (SIMAP) provides the public procurement industry with information on European and international business opportunities.
Source: http://europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/index_en.htm

Regulation    
Regulations are the strongest form of Community legislation. They have general application, are binding in their entirety and are directly applicable in all Member States.

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME)    
At Community level, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are defined by a set of criteria concerning the workforce, turnover and independence of the business. In terms of the workforce alone, a micro-enterprise has fewer than 10 employees, a small enterprise fewer than 50 and a medium-sized enterprise fewer than 250. The European Union has specifically defined SMEs so that the benefits introduced for their support are reserved for those businesses which genuinely have the characteristics of such firms.
Small and medium-sized enterprises account for more than 90% of all European enterprises and are at the very heart of the European economy. In line with the slogan "think small first" from the European Charter for Small Enterprises (2000), the Union is setting up a number of SME support measures (access to funding, taxation, research, information and communication technology, etc.) It has also established a single, coherent policy framework for these various measures, with the aim of realising the untapped potential of SMEs for growth and job creation within the Union.
To ensure that the specific interests and needs of SMEs are taken more fully into account in European policies, a representative of the SMEs acts as a link between them and the European Commission.
While the Union encourages using the Community definition of SMEs as a reference, it is binding only for certain matters, such as state aid, implementing structural funds or Community programmes.
Source: http://europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/index_en.htm

Structural Funds    
The EU’s Structural Funds are administered by the Commission to finance Community structural aid. They comprise the Guidance Section of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund, the Regional Fund for structural aid under the regional policy, the Social Fund for social policy measures and the Financial Instrument for Fisheries. Financial support from the Structural Funds mainly goes to the poorer regions to strengthen the Union’s economic and social cohesion aimed at narrowing the economic and social gaps so that the challenges of the single market can be met right across the EU. The Structural Funds are complementary to national or private funding and are used to implement large-scale programmes, which cover a very broad range of local, regional or national actions. They combine their interventions depending on the needs. More under “Objectives of the Structural Funds”.

Subcontractor    
A third party that is assigned tasks to carry out on behalf of the partnership.
Source: Good Practice INTERREG III Partnership Agreement Handbook, INTERACT Point Tool Box, 2005

Subsidy Contract    
Contract between the Managing Authority and the operation’s Lead Partner. It determines the rights and responsibilities of the Lead Partner and the Managing Authority, the scope of activities to be carried out, terms of funding, requirements for reporting and financial controls, etc.
Source: DG Regional Policy – INFOREGIO Website – glossary

Sustainable Development    
Concept based on the choice of balanced economic growth which takes account of the requirements of employment and social inclusion, the needs of businesses, public health and welfare, and environmental protection. The aim is to satisfy present needs without jeopardising the capacity of future generations to satisfy theirs. The Structural Fund interventions are required to reflect upon the principle of sustainable development.

Work Package 
* Any reference to ‘the European Constitution’ is suspended until a new reform treaty has been adopted to replace the draft Constitutional Treaty


 
creating the future